python中字符串内置函数的用法总结

 更新时间:2018年09月13日 14:39:08   投稿:laozhang   我要评论

这篇文章给大家总结了python中字符串内置函数的用法以及相关知识点内容,有兴趣的朋友学习下。

capitalize() 首字母大写

a='someword' 
 b=a.capitalize() 
 print(b) 
 —>Someword

casefold()&lower() 所有字母变小写,casefold可将未知字符便小写

a='someWORD' 
  b=a.casefold() 
  print(b) 
  c=a.lower() 
  print(c) 
  —>someword 
  —>someword

center(width,fillchar=None) 设置宽度,并将内容居中,空白未知填充,一个字符

a='someword' 
  b=a.center(30,'*') 
  print(b)

count(sub,start=None,end=None) 去字符串中寻找,寻找子序列的出现次数,可指定起止点

a='somewordsomeword' 
 b=a.count(‘or') 
 print(b) 
 —>2

startswith(suffix,start=None,end=None)&endswith(suffix,start=None,end=None) 是否以XX开始/结束,可指定起止点

a='somewordsomeword' 
  b=a.startswith(‘sa') 
  c=a.endswith(‘ord') 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  —>False 
  —>True

find(sub,start=None,end=None) 寻找指定字符或字符串,并返回第一个位置,找不到返回-1,可指定起止点

a='somewordsomeword' 
  b=a.find(‘me') 
  print(b) 
  —>2

format() 格式化,将一个字符串中的占位符替换为指定的值

test='I am {name},age {a}' 
  v=test.format(name='alex',a=19) 
  print(v) 
  —>i am alex,age 19

format_map() 格式化,传入的值

test='iam{name},age{a}' 
  v=test.format_map({“name”:'alex',”a”:19}) 
  print(v) 
  —>i am alex,age 19

isalnum() 字符串中是否只包含字母和数字

a='asdfs123*' 
  b=a.isalnum() 
  print(b) 
  —>False

expandtabs(tabsize=number) 将字符串以number分割,并将tab补入

a='asdfs123\t523fgbdf' 
 b=a.expandtabs(5) 
 print(b)
 —>asdfs123 523fgbdf

isalpha() 字符串中是只包含字母

a='asdfsfgbdf' 
 b=a.isalpha() 
 print(b) 
 —>True

isdecimal()&isdigit()&isnumeric() 字符串中是只包含数字,isdigit更为强大,isnumeric还可识别中文

a='132132②二' 
  b=a.isdecimal() 
  c=a.isdigit() 
  d=a.isnumeric() 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  print(d) 
  —>False 
  —>False 
  —>True

isprintable() 是否存在不可显示的字符如换行符

a='sdfgdfg\t' 
 b=a.isprintable() 
 print(b) 
 —>False

isspace() 判断是否全部为空格

a='dsvsdv' 
  b=a.isspace() 
  print(b) 
  —>False

istitle()&title() 判断是否为标题,即首字母大写&变为标题

a='follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones' 
  b=a.istitle() 
  print(b) 
  c=a.title() 
  print(c) 
  —>False 
  —>Follow Uncased Characters And Lowercase Characters Only Cased Ones

join(iterable) 将字符串中的每个元素按照指定分隔符进行拼接

a='一二三四五六七' 
  print(a) 
  b='*' 
  c=b.join(a) 
  print(c) 
  —>一二三四五六七 
  —>一二三四五六七

ljust(width,fillchar=None)&rjust(width,fillchar=None) 向右/左填充字符

a='hello' 
 b=a.ljust(20,'*') 
 c=a.rjust(20,'*') 
 print(b) 
 print(c) 
 —>hello*************** 
 —>***************hello

islower()&lower() 判断是是否为全小写&变为全部小写

a='Hello' 
  b=a.islower() 
  c=a.lower() 
  print(b,c) 
  —>False hello

isupper()&c=a.upper() 判断是是否为全大写&变为全部大写

a='Hello' 
  b=a.isupper() 
  c=a.upper() 
  print(b,c) 
  —>False HELLO

lstrip(chars=None)&rstrip(chars=None)&strip(chars=None) 去除字符串左边/右边/两边的字符串,默认空格,换行等

a='Hello' 
  b=a.lstrip() 
  c=a.rstrip() 
  d=a.strip() 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  print(d) 
  —>Hello 
  —> Hello 
  —>Hello

maketrans(*args,**kwargs)&translate(table) 按maketrans对应关系将translate中的字符串进行替换

a='asdgfrfbcvzxrentas' 
  b=str.maketrans(‘xdsa','1234') 
  c=a.translate(b) 
  print(c) 
  —> 432gfrfbcvz1rent43

partition(sep)&rpartition(sep) 将字符串按指定字符分割成3段/或从右开始

a='helwloasvxcwaewc' 
  b=a.partition(‘w') 
  c=a.rpartition(‘w') 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  —>(‘hel', ‘w', ‘loasvxcwaewc') 
  —>(‘helwloasvxcwae', ‘w', ‘c')

split(sep=None,maxsplit=-1)&rsplit(sep=None,maxsplit=-1) 将字符串按指定字符串分割,分割后不保留

a='helwloasvxcwaewc' 
  b=a.split(‘w',2) 
  c=a.rsplit(‘w') 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  —>[‘hel', ‘loasvxc', ‘aewc'] 
  —>[‘hel', ‘loasvxc', ‘ae', ‘c']

splitlines(keepends=None) 按照换行符进行分割,带true参数保留换行符

a='helwloas\nvxcwaewc\nafgasdfs' 
  b=a.splitlines() 
  c=a.splitlines(True) 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  —>[‘helwloas', ‘vxcwaewc', ‘afgasdfs'] 
  —>[‘helwloas\n', ‘vxcwaewc\n', ‘afgasdfs']

startswith(prefix,start=None,end=None)&endswith(prefix,start=None,end=None) 判断字符串是否以指定字符开始/结束,可指定起止点

a='aefsfsfeeav' 
  b=a.startswith(‘ae') 
  c=a.endswith(‘av',1,9) 
  print(b) 
  print(c) 
  True 
  —>False

swapcase() 小写转变为大写

a='aefsfsfeeav' 
  b=a.swapcase() 
  print(b) 
  —>AEFSFSFEEAV

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