Java原生HttpClient的使用详解

 更新时间:2022年04月08日 14:33:36   作者:农民工老王  
Java开发语言中实现HTTP请求的方法主要有两种:一种是JAVA的标准类HttpUrlConnection,比较原生的实现方法;另一种是第三方开源框架HTTPClient。本文就将详细讲讲Java中原生HttpClient的使用,需要的可以参考一下

提到Java发送HTTP请求,大家首先想到的是用apache的HttpClient,或者squareup的OkHttp。而在Java11之前,原生Java对此的支持还是比较差的,虽然可以HttpURLConnection、URLConnection、Socket等自带的类发送请求,但是操作比较复杂。直到Java11发布,Java本身也自带了HttpClient。自2020年初,我就在开发中广泛使用了这一新特性,感觉使用体验也还可以。现总结成博客,供大家参考。

1.信任证书管理类

package cn.wja.component;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import javax.net.ssl.X509TrustManager;
import java.security.cert.X509Certificate;


class MyX509TrustManager implements X509TrustManager {
    @Override
    public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] x509Certificates, String s)  {
    }

    @Override
    public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] x509Certificates, String s)  {
    }

    @Override
    public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
        return null;
    }

    public static TrustManager[] getTrustManagers() {
        TrustManager[] trustAllCertificates = {new MyX509TrustManager()};
        return trustAllCertificates;
    }
}

2.HttpClient类

package cn.wja.component;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;
import javax.net.ssl.SSLParameters;
import javax.net.ssl.TrustManager;
import java.net.http.HttpClient;
import java.security.KeyManagementException;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.time.Duration;

public class MyHttpClient {
    static public HttpClient getClient() throws NoSuchAlgorithmException, KeyManagementException {
        TrustManager[] trustManagers = MyX509TrustManager.getTrustManagers();
        var timeoutInSeconds = 60;
        SSLParameters sslParams = new SSLParameters();
        sslParams.setEndpointIdentificationAlgorithm("");
        SSLContext sc = SSLContext.getInstance("SSL");
        //取消主机名验证
        System.setProperty("jdk.internal.httpclient.disableHostnameVerification", "true");
        sc.init(null, trustManagers, new SecureRandom());
        return HttpClient.newBuilder()
                .connectTimeout(Duration.ofMillis(timeoutInSeconds * 1000))
                .sslContext(sc)
                .sslParameters(sslParams)
                .followRedirects(HttpClient.Redirect.NEVER)
                .version(HttpClient.Version.HTTP_2)
                .build();
    }
}

3.发送请求工具类

package cn.wja.util;

import cn.wja.component.MyHttpClient;
import java.net.URI;
import java.net.http.HttpClient;
import java.net.http.HttpRequest;
import java.net.http.HttpResponse;


import static java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets.UTF_8;

public class HttpUtils {

    public static HttpResponse<String> sendGet(String urlStr, String cookieStr) throws Exception {
        HashMap<String, String> hashMap = new HashMap<>();
        hashMap.put("Cookie",cookieStr);
        return sendGet(urlStr,hashMap);
    }


    public static HttpResponse<String> sendGet(String urlStr, Map<String,String> headers) throws KeyManagementException, NoSuchAlgorithmException, IOException, InterruptedException {
        HttpClient client = MyHttpClient.getClient();
        HttpRequest.Builder reqBuilder = getReqBuilder(urlStr);
        reqBuilder.GET();
        for (String key:headers.keySet()){
            reqBuilder.header(key, headers.get(key));
        }
        HttpRequest request = reqBuilder.build();
        HttpResponse<String> result = client.send(request, HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.ofString(UTF_8));
        return result;
    }

    private static HttpResponse<String> sendPost(String contentType, String urlStr, String bodyStr, String cookieStr) throws Exception {
        HttpClient client = MyHttpClient.getClient();
        HttpRequest.Builder reqBuilder = getReqBuilder(urlStr);
        HttpRequest.BodyPublisher bodyPublisher = HttpRequest.BodyPublishers.ofString(bodyStr);
        reqBuilder.header("Content-Type", contentType)
                .POST(bodyPublisher)
                .header("Cookie", cookieStr);
        HttpRequest request = reqBuilder.build();
        HttpResponse<String> result = client.send(request, HttpResponse.BodyHandlers.ofString(UTF_8));
        return result;
    }
    
    public static HttpResponse<String> sendFormPost(String urlStr, String formStr, String cookieStr) throws Exception {
        return sendPost("application/x-www-form-urlencoded;charset=utf-8", urlStr, formStr, cookieStr);
    }

    public static HttpResponse<String> sendJsonPost(String urlStr, String jsonStr, String cookieStr) throws Exception {
        return sendPost("application/json;charset=utf-8", urlStr, jsonStr, cookieStr);
    }

    public static HttpRequest.Builder getReqBuilder(String urlStr) {
        return HttpRequest.newBuilder()
                .uri(URI.create(urlStr))
                .header("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:96.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/96.0");
    }
}

4.测试

测试表明,通过调用工具类方法,可以直接发送GET请求和带Form表单/Json的POST请求。如果您要发送其他形式的HTTP请求,也可以参照上述代码自行实现。

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