Laravel 5框架学习之Eloquent (laravel 的ORM)

 更新时间:2015年04月08日 10:11:08   投稿:hebedich  
Laravel 的 Eloquent ORM 提供了漂亮、简洁的 ActiveRecord 实现来和数据库的互动。 每个数据库表会和一个对应的「模型」互动。在开始之前,记得把 config/database.php 里的数据库连接配置好。

我们来生成第一个模型

复制代码 代码如下:

php artisan make:model Article
#输出
Model created successfully.
Created Migration: 2015_03_28_062517_create_articles_table

查看一下生成的文件 app/Article.php

<?php namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Article extends Model {

 //

}

没什么特别的,除了继承自 Model 以外,但是具有强大的功能,这些都封装在laravel的Model中。模型自动具有了 save() update() findXXX() 等强大的功能。

tinker 是 laravel提供的命令行工具,可以和项目进行交互。

php artisan tinker

#以下是在tinker中的交互输入
Psy Shell v0.4.1 (PHP 5.4.16 — cli) by Justin Hileman
>>> $name = 'zhang jinglin';
=> "zhang jinglin"

>>> $name
=> "zhang jinglin"

>>> $article = new App\Article;
=> <App\Article #000000005c4b7ee400000000ab91a676> {}

>>> $article->title = 'My First Article';
=> "My First Article"

>>> $article->body = 'Some content...';
=> "Some content..."

>>> $article->published_at = Carbon\Carbon::now();
=> <Carbon\Carbon #000000005c4b7ee600000000ab91dcb6> {
    date: "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
    timezone_type: 3,
    timezone: "UTC"
  }

>>> $article;
=> <App\Article #000000005c4b7ee400000000ab91a676> {
    title: "My First Article",
    body: "Some content...",
    published_at: <Carbon\Carbon #000000005c4b7ee600000000ab91dcb6> {
      date: "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
      timezone_type: 3,
      timezone: "UTC"
    }
  }

>>> $article->toArray();
=> [
    "title"    => "My First Article",
    "body"     => "Some content...",
    "published_at" => <Carbon\Carbon #000000005c4b7ee600000000ab91dcb6> {
      date: "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
      timezone_type: 3,
      timezone: "UTC"
    }
  ]

>>> $article->save();
=> true

#查看数据结果,添加了一条记录

>>> App\Article::all()->toArray();
=> [
    [
      "id"      => "1",
      "title"    => "My First Article",
      "body"     => "Some content...",
      "published_at" => "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
      "created_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:38:53",
      "updated_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:38:53"
    ]
  ]

>>> $article->title = 'My First Update Title';
=> "My First Update Title"

>>> $article->save();
=> true

>>> App\Article::all()->toArray();
=> [
    [
      "id"      => "1",
      "title"    => "My First Update Title",
      "body"     => "Some content...",
      "published_at" => "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
      "created_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:38:53",
      "updated_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:42:03"
    ]
  ]
  
>>> $article = App\Article::find(1);
=> <App\Article #000000005c4b7e1600000000ab91a676> {
    id: "1",
    title: "My First Update Title",
    body: "Some content...",
    published_at: "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
    created_at: "2015-03-28 06:38:53",
    updated_at: "2015-03-28 06:42:03"
  }

>>> $article = App\Article::where('body', 'Some content...')->get();
=> <Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Collection #000000005c4b7e1800000000ab91a676> [
    <App\Article #000000005c4b7e1b00000000ab91a676> {
      id: "1",
      title: "My First Update Title",
      body: "Some content...",
      published_at: "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
      created_at: "2015-03-28 06:38:53",
      updated_at: "2015-03-28 06:42:03"
    }
  ]

>>> $article = App\Article::where('body', 'Some content...')->first();
=> <App\Article #000000005c4b7e1900000000ab91a676> {
    id: "1",
    title: "My First Update Title",
    body: "Some content...",
    published_at: "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
    created_at: "2015-03-28 06:38:53",
    updated_at: "2015-03-28 06:42:03"
  }
>>> 

>>> $article = App\Article::create(['title' => 'New Article', 'body' => 'New body', 'published_at' => Carbon\Carbon::now()]);
Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\MassAssignmentException with message 'title'

MassAssignmentException,laravel保护我们不能直接插入记录。比如,在一些特殊情况下我们需要直接利用表单的信息填充数据库记录,但是如果我们并没有在表单中添加密码字段,而黑客产生了密码字段连同我们的其他字段一起送回服务器,这将产生修改密码的危险,所以我们必须明确的告诉laravel我们的模型那些字段是可以直接填充的。

修改我们的模型文件 Article.php

<?php namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Article extends Model {

 protected $fillable = [
    'title',
    'body',
    'published_at'
  ];

}

表示,title, body, published_at 是可以直接填充的。

退出 tinker,重新进入

>>> $article = App\Article::create(['title' => 'New Article', 'body' => 'New body', 'published_at' => Carbon\Carbon::now()]);
=> <App\Article #000000005051b2c7000000007ec432dd> {
    title: "New Article",
    body: "New body",
    published_at: <Carbon\Carbon #000000005051b2c6000000007ec4081d> {
      date: "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
      timezone_type: 3,
      timezone: "UTC"
    },
    updated_at: "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
    created_at: "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
    id: 2
  }
  
# It's ok

>>> App\Article::all()->toArray();
=> [
    [
      "id"      => "1",
      "title"    => "My First Update Title",
      "body"     => "Some content...",
      "published_at" => "2015-03-28 06:37:22",
      "created_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:38:53",
      "updated_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:42:03"
    ],
    [
      "id"      => "2",
      "title"    => "New Article",
      "body"     => "New body",
      "published_at" => "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
      "created_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
      "updated_at"  => "2015-03-28 06:55:19"
    ]
  ]

>>> $article = App\Article::find(2);
=> <App\Article #000000005051b22b000000007ec432dd> {
    id: "2",
    title: "New Article",
    body: "New body",
    published_at: "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
    created_at: "2015-03-28 06:55:19",
    updated_at: "2015-03-28 06:55:19"
  }

>>> $article->update(['body' => 'New Updaet Body']);
=> true

#update自动调用save()

以上所述就是本文的全部内容了,希望能够对大家学习Laravel5框架有所帮助。

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