Oracle查询sql错误信息的控制和定位

 更新时间:2018年12月27日 08:40:57   转载 作者:liumiaocn  
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在sqlplus中执行的sql出错之后应该如何处理和对应,多行sql语句或者存储过程的信息如何进行错误定位,这篇文章将结合实例进行简单地说明。

环境准备

使用Oracle的精简版创建docker方式的demo环境,详细可参看:

如何进行错误定位

场景:

假如有3行insert的sql语句,中间一行出错之后,后续继续执行的情况下,如何定位到第二行?

dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace

通过使用dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace可以得到ERROR at line xxx:的信息,这对我们较为有用,我们接下来进行确认

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ sqlplus system/abcd1234@XE <<EOF
> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
> desc student
> delete from student;
> select * from student;
> insert into student values (1001, 'liumiaocn');
> insert into student values (1001, 'liumiao');
> insert into student values (1003, 'michael');
> select * from student;
> commit;
> exec dbms_output.put_line(dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace);
> EOF
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Sun Oct 21 13:06:07 2018
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
SQL> SQL> Name    Null?  Type
 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
 STUID    NOT NULL NUMBER(4)
 STUNAME     VARCHAR2(50)
SQL> 
2 rows deleted.
SQL> 
no rows selected
SQL> 
1 row created.
SQL> insert into student values (1001, 'liumiao')
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C007024) violated
SQL> 
1 row created.
SQL> 
   STUID STUNAME
---------- --------------------------------------------------
   1001 liumiaocn
   1003 michael
SQL> 
Commit complete.
SQL> 
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ 

可以看到,报错的时候提示了行号,但是行号是1,这是因为这种写法以一行为单位,自然是如此,如果是单个多行的存储过程,将会更加清晰。

ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C007024) violated

所以我们将这个例子进行改造,三行insert的sql放到文件之中,然后在使用dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace来进行确认

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ cat /tmp/sqltest1.sql 
desc student
delete from student;
select * from student;
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiaocn');
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiao');
insert into student values (1003, 'michael');
select * from student;
commit;
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$

然后在尝试一下是否能够确认行号,会发现仍然不能精确定位:

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ sqlplus system/abcd1234@XE <<EOF
> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
> @/tmp/sqltest1.sql
> exec dbms_output.put_line(dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace);
> EOF
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Sun Oct 21 13:08:27 2018
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
SQL> SQL> Name    Null?  Type
 ----------------------------------------- -------- ----------------------------
 STUID    NOT NULL NUMBER(4)
 STUNAME     VARCHAR2(50)
2 rows deleted.
no rows selected
1 row created.
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiao')
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C007024) violated
1 row created.
   STUID STUNAME
---------- --------------------------------------------------
   1001 liumiaocn
   1003 michael
Commit complete.
SQL> 
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ 

因为dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace更多的场景是在于存储过程的错误定位,接下来我们使用一个简单的存储过程例子来进行确认错误行号定位, 先看一个正常的存储过程,把上面的内容稍微修改一下:

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ cat /tmp/addstudent.sql 
create or replace PROCEDURE addstudents
IS
student_count number;
BEGIN
delete from student;
select count(*) into student_count from student;
dbms_output.put('sql set count before :');
dbms_output.put_line(student_count);
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiaocn');
insert into student values (1002, 'liumiao');
insert into student values (1003, 'michael');
select count(*) into student_count from student;
dbms_output.put('sql set count after :');
dbms_output.put_line(student_count);
END;
/
exec addstudents();
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$

结果执行信息如下

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ sqlplus system/liumiao123 <<EOF
set serveroutput on;
@/tmp/addstudent.sql 
EOF
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Mon Oct 22 04:42:11 2018
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
SQL> SQL> 
Procedure created.
sql set count before :0
sql set count after :3
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ 

接下来我们修改一下内容,使得第二行主键重复

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ cat /tmp/addstudent.sql
create or replace PROCEDURE addstudents
IS
student_count number;
BEGIN
delete from student;
select count(*) into student_count from student;
dbms_output.put('sql set count before :');
dbms_output.put_line(student_count);
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiaocn');
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiao');
insert into student values (1003, 'michael');
select count(*) into student_count from student;
dbms_output.put('sql set count after :');
dbms_output.put_line(student_count);
END;
/
exec addstudents();
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ 

再次执行,自然会出错,但是可以看到,正确报出了所在行数,这是procedure的机制提示的信息

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ sqlplus system/liumiao123 <<EOF
set serveroutput on;
@/tmp/addstudent.sql 
EOF
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Mon Oct 22 04:44:25 2018
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
SQL> SQL> 
Procedure created.
sql set count before :0
BEGIN addstudents(); END;
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SYSTEM.SYS_C007024) violated
ORA-06512: at "SYSTEM.ADDSTUDENTS", line 10
ORA-06512: at line 1
SQL> Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$

可以看到,ORA-06512: at “SYSTEM.ADDSTUDENTS”, line 10的信息就是我们期待的信息,提示出在这个存储过程的第10行执行出现问题,而实际可以使用dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace结合exception给出更为清晰地方式,比如:

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ cat /tmp/addstudent.sql 
create or replace PROCEDURE addstudents
IS
student_count number;
BEGIN
delete from student;
select count(*) into student_count from student;
dbms_output.put('sql set count before :');
dbms_output.put_line(student_count);
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiaocn');
insert into student values (1001, 'liumiao');
insert into student values (1003, 'michael');
select count(*) into student_count from student;
dbms_output.put('sql set count after :');
dbms_output.put_line(student_count);
exception
when others then
dbms_output.put('exception happend with line info : ');
dbms_output.put_line(dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace);
END;
/
exec addstudents();
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$

执行结果确认:

oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ sqlplus system/liumiao123 <<EOF
set serveroutput on;
@/tmp/addstudent.sql 
EOF
SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.2.0 Production on Mon Oct 22 04:49:27 2018
Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
SQL> SQL> 
Procedure created.
sql set count before :0
exception happend with line info : ORA-06512: at "SYSTEM.ADDSTUDENTS", line 10
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SQL> Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Express Edition Release 11.2.0.2.0 - 64bit Production
oracle@e871d42341c0:~$ 

这样则可以看出能够比较清晰地进行错误的定位了,但是由于功能受限,所以实际使用场景仍然较为有限,但是定位存储过程的信息则可以使用dbms_utility.format_error_backtrace等进行确认。

小结

多行sql执行定位可以考虑拆成单行来确认,而存储过程则可结合format_error_backtrace等进行确认以提供问题出现的所在行号。

总结

以上就是这篇文章的全部内容了,希望本文的内容对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,谢谢大家对脚本之家的支持。如果你想了解更多相关内容请查看下面相关链接

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