k8s搭建mysql集群实现主从复制的方法步骤

 更新时间:2023年01月05日 16:27:28   作者:折言阿  
本文是基于已有k8s环境下,介绍在k8s环境中部署mysql主从集群的实现步骤,对mysql学习有一定的帮助,感兴趣的可以学习一下

环境介绍

名称版本操作系统IP备注
K8S集群1.20.15Centos7.9192.168.11.21 192.168.11.22 192.168.11.2321为k8s-master 22为k8s-node01 23为k8s-node02
MySql5.7Centos7.9一主两从
nfs服务器Centos7.9192.168.11.24共享目录为/nfs

一、部署NFS服务器

11.24:

1.创建NFS共享目录

mkdir -p /nfs

2.安装NFS服务

yum -y install nfs-utils rpcbind

3.编辑NFS配置

echo "/nfs  *(rw,async,no_root_squash)" >>/etc/exports

4.启动服务

systemctl enable --now nfs-server
systemctl enable --now rpcbind

5.验证

showmount -e  ##看是否能看到/nfs *字段;如果没有该命令yum -y install showmount

11.21/22/23(所有K8S节点):

1.安装NFS

yum -y install nfs-utils

2.测试是否能检测到NFS共享目录

showmount -e 192.168.11.24  ##看是否能看到/nfs *

二、创建PV

11.21:

1、创建存放MySQL的yaml清单目录

mkdir  -p /webapp
cd /webapp

2、创建NFS的YAML文件

vim nfs-client.yaml 

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: nfs-client-provisioner
  labels:
    app: nfs-client-provisioner
    # replace with namespace where provisioner is deployed
  namespace: default
spec:
  replicas: 1
  strategy:
    type: Recreate
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: nfs-client-provisioner
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: nfs-client-provisioner
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: nfs-client-provisioner
      containers:
        - name: nfs-client-provisioner
          image: registry.cn-beijing.aliyuncs.com/xngczl/nfs-subdir-external-provisione:v4.0.0
          volumeMounts:
            - name: nfs-client-root
              mountPath: /persistentvolumes
          env:
            - name: PROVISIONER_NAME
              value: fuseim.pri/ifs #注意这个值,可以自定义
            - name: NFS_SERVER
              value: 192.168.11.24  ##IP不同修改此处
            - name: NFS_PATH
              value: /nfs   ##nfs共享目录
      volumes:
        - name: nfs-client-root
          nfs:
            server: 192.168.11.24  ##IP不同修改此处
            path: /nfs  ##nfs共享目录

创建rbac

vim nfs-client-rbac.yaml 

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: nfs-client-provisioner
  # replace with namespace where provisioner is deployed
  namespace: default
---
kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: nfs-client-provisioner-runner
rules:
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["nodes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["persistentvolumes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "create", "delete"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["persistentvolumeclaims"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "update"]
  - apiGroups: ["storage.k8s.io"]
    resources: ["storageclasses"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["events"]
    verbs: ["create", "update", "patch"]
---
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: run-nfs-client-provisioner
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: nfs-client-provisioner
    # replace with namespace where provisioner is deployed
    namespace: default
roleRef:
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: nfs-client-provisioner-runner
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
---
kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: leader-locking-nfs-client-provisioner
  # replace with namespace where provisioner is deployed
  namespace: default
rules:
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["endpoints"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch", "create", "update", "patch"]
---
kind: RoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: leader-locking-nfs-client-provisioner
  # replace with namespace where provisioner is deployed
  namespace: default
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: nfs-client-provisioner
    # replace with namespace where provisioner is deployed
    namespace: default
roleRef:
  kind: Role
  name: leader-locking-nfs-client-provisioner
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io

创建sc

vim nfs-client-class.yaml

apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1
kind: StorageClass
metadata: 
  name: course-nfs-storage

启动:

kubectl  apply  -f nfs-client.yaml 
​​​​​​​kubectl  apply  -f nfs-client-rbac.yaml
kubectl  apply  -f nfs-client-class.yaml 
kubectl  get po,sc
NAME                                          READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
pod/nfs-client-provisioner-8579c9d69b-m6vp4   1/1     Running   0          13m

NAME                                             PROVISIONER      RECLAIMPOLICY   VOLUMEBINDINGMODE   ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION   AGE
storageclass.storage.k8s.io/course-nfs-storage   fuseim.pri/ifs   Delete          Immediate           false                  13m

三、编写MySQL的yaml文件

11.21:

mkdir -p /weapp/mysql
cd  /weapp/mysql

创建CM

```bash

vim mysql-configmap.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: mysql
  labels:
    app: mysql
data:
  master.cnf: |
    # Apply this config only on the master.
    [mysqld]
    log-bin
  slave.cnf: |
    # Apply this config only on slaves.
    [mysqld]
    super-read-only

此文件定义了两个MySQL的配置文件
1.是master.cnf,开启了log-bin。开启二进制日志文件后才能进行主从复制
2.slave.cnf,开启了super-read-only,表示从节点只能读,不能进行其他操作。
两个文件以配置文件形式挂载到mysql容器中`

创建MySQL的Service

vim mysql-services.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: mysql
  labels:
    app: mysql
spec:
  ports:
  - name: mysql
    port: 3306
  clusterIP: None
  selector:
    app: mysql
---
# Client service for connecting to any MySQL instance for reads.
# For writes, you must instead connect to the master: mysql-0.mysql.
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: mysql-read
  labels:
    app: mysql
spec:
  ports:
  - name: mysql
    port: 3306
  selector:
    app: mysql

创MySQL的StatefulSet

vim mysql-statefulset.yaml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
metadata:
  name: mysql
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: mysql
  serviceName: mysql
  replicas: 3
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: mysql
    spec:
      initContainers:
      - name: init-mysql
        image: mysql:5.7
        command:
        - bash
        - "-c"
        - |
          set -ex
          # Generate mysql server-id from pod ordinal index.
          [[ `hostname` =~ -([0-9]+)$ ]] || exit 1
          ordinal=${BASH_REMATCH[1]}
          echo [mysqld] > /mnt/conf.d/server-id.cnf
          # Add an offset to avoid reserved server-id=0 value.
          echo server-id=$((100 + $ordinal)) >> /mnt/conf.d/server-id.cnf
          # Copy appropriate conf.d files from config-map to emptyDir.
          if [[ $ordinal -eq 0 ]]; then
            cp /mnt/config-map/master.cnf /mnt/conf.d/
          else
            cp /mnt/config-map/slave.cnf /mnt/conf.d/
          fi          
        volumeMounts:
        - name: conf
          mountPath: /mnt/conf.d
        - name: config-map
          mountPath: /mnt/config-map
      - name: clone-mysql
        image: fxkjnj/xtrabackup:1.0
        command:
        - bash
        - "-c"
        - |
          set -ex
          # Skip the clone if data already exists.
          [[ -d /var/lib/mysql/mysql ]] && exit 0
          # Skip the clone on master (ordinal index 0).
          [[ `hostname` =~ -([0-9]+)$ ]] || exit 1
          ordinal=${BASH_REMATCH[1]}
          [[ $ordinal -eq 0 ]] && exit 0
          # Clone data from previous peer.
          ncat --recv-only mysql-$(($ordinal-1)).mysql 3307 | xbstream -x -C /var/lib/mysql
          # Prepare the backup.
          xtrabackup --prepare --target-dir=/var/lib/mysql          
        volumeMounts:
        - name: data
          mountPath: /var/lib/mysql
          subPath: mysql
        - name: conf
          mountPath: /etc/mysql/conf.d
      containers:
      - name: mysql
        image: mysql:5.7
        env:
        - name: MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD
          value: "1"
        ports:
        - name: mysql
          containerPort: 3306
        volumeMounts:
        - name: data
          mountPath: /var/lib/mysql
          subPath: mysql
        - name: conf
          mountPath: /etc/mysql/conf.d
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 500m
            memory: 1Gi
        livenessProbe:
          exec:
            command: ["mysqladmin", "ping"]
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          periodSeconds: 10
          timeoutSeconds: 5
        readinessProbe:
          exec:
            # Check we can execute queries over TCP (skip-networking is off).
            command: ["mysql", "-h", "127.0.0.1", "-e", "SELECT 1"]
          initialDelaySeconds: 5
          periodSeconds: 2
          timeoutSeconds: 1
      - name: xtrabackup
        image: fxkjnj/xtrabackup:1.0
        ports:
        - name: xtrabackup
          containerPort: 3307
        command:
        - bash
        - "-c"
        - |
          set -ex
          cd /var/lib/mysql
 
          # Determine binlog position of cloned data, if any.
          if [[ -f xtrabackup_slave_info && "x$(<xtrabackup_slave_info)" != "x" ]]; then
            # XtraBackup already generated a partial "CHANGE MASTER TO" query
            # because we're cloning from an existing slave. (Need to remove the tailing semicolon!)
            cat xtrabackup_slave_info | sed -E 's/;$//g' > change_master_to.sql.in
            # Ignore xtrabackup_binlog_info in this case (it's useless).
            rm -f xtrabackup_slave_info xtrabackup_binlog_info
          elif [[ -f xtrabackup_binlog_info ]]; then
            # We're cloning directly from master. Parse binlog position.
            [[ `cat xtrabackup_binlog_info` =~ ^(.*?)[[:space:]]+(.*?)$ ]] || exit 1
            rm -f xtrabackup_binlog_info xtrabackup_slave_info
            echo "CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_LOG_FILE='${BASH_REMATCH[1]}',\
                  MASTER_LOG_POS=${BASH_REMATCH[2]}" > change_master_to.sql.in
          fi
 
          # Check if we need to complete a clone by starting replication.
          if [[ -f change_master_to.sql.in ]]; then
            echo "Waiting for mysqld to be ready (accepting connections)"
            until mysql -h 127.0.0.1 -e "SELECT 1"; do sleep 1; done
 
            echo "Initializing replication from clone position"
            mysql -h 127.0.0.1 \
                  -e "$(<change_master_to.sql.in), \
                          MASTER_HOST='mysql-0.mysql', \
                          MASTER_USER='root', \
                          MASTER_PASSWORD='', \
                          MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY=10; \
                        START SLAVE;" || exit 1
            # In case of container restart, attempt this at-most-once.
            mv change_master_to.sql.in change_master_to.sql.orig
          fi
 
          # Start a server to send backups when requested by peers.
          exec ncat --listen --keep-open --send-only --max-conns=1 3307 -c \
            "xtrabackup --backup --slave-info --stream=xbstream --host=127.0.0.1 --user=root"          
        volumeMounts:
        - name: data
          mountPath: /var/lib/mysql
          subPath: mysql
        - name: conf
          mountPath: /etc/mysql/conf.d
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 100Mi
      volumes:
      - name: conf
        emptyDir: {}
      - name: config-map
        configMap:
          name: mysql
  volumeClaimTemplates:
  - metadata:
      name: data
    spec:
      storageClassName: "course-nfs-storage"
      accessModes: ["ReadWriteOnce"]
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 0.5Gi
  • 使用xtrbackup工具进行初始化数据的备份
  • 使用linux自带的ncat工具进行容器初始化数据拷贝
  • 使用mysql的bin-log实现主从复制
  • 使用mysqladmin的ping作为健康检查方式
  • 利用pod的主机名的序号来判定当前节点为主还是从,再根据节点拷贝不同的配置文件到指定目录

四、启动MySQL

11.21

kubectl apply -f mysql-configmap.yaml
kubectl apply -f mysql-services.yaml
kubectl apply -f mysql-statefulset.yaml
kubectl get po
NAME      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE      IP            NODE            NOMINATED NODE    READINESS GATES
mysql-0   2/2     Running   0          3h12m    10.244.0.5    k8s-master1     <none>            <none>
mysql-1   2/2     Running   0          3h11m    10.244.1.6    k8s-node02      <none>            <none>
mysql-2   2/2     Running   0          3h10m    10.244.1.5    k8s-node01      <none>            <none>

五、验证MySQL主从复制

11.21:

kubectl  exec  -it mysql-0 -- bash  ##进入mysqk-0pod
  mysql -h mysql-0.mysql  ##进入数据库
    CREATE DATABASE test;  ##创建库表。
    CREATE TABLE test.messages (message VARCHAR(250));
    INSERT INTO test.messages VALUES ('hello');
    \q
exit
kubectl  exec  -it mysql-1 -- bash  ##进入mysql-1pod
  mysql -h mysql-1.mysql  ##进入数据库
    SELECT * FROM test.messages;  ##看是否看得到创建的test库

获得以下输出    

Waiting for pod default/mysql-client to be running, status is Pending, pod ready: false
+---------+
| message |
+---------+
| hello   |
+---------+

到此这篇关于k8s搭建mysql集群实现主从复制的方法步骤的文章就介绍到这了,更多相关k8s搭建mysql实现主从复制内容请搜索脚本之家以前的文章或继续浏览下面的相关文章希望大家以后多多支持脚本之家!

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