MySQL5.6基于GTID的主从复制

 更新时间:2016年02月19日 14:45:21   投稿:lijiao  
这篇文章主要介绍了MySQL5.6基于GTID的主从复制的相关资料,需要的朋友可以参考下

MySQL 5.6 的新特性之一,是加入了全局事务 ID (GTID) 来强化数据库的主备一致性,故障恢复,以及容错能力。

什么是GTID?

官方文档:http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/replication-gtids.html在这篇文档里,我们可以知道全局事务 ID 的官方定义是:GTID = source_id:transaction_id

MySQL 5.6 中,每一个 GTID 代表一个数据库事务。在上面的定义中,source_id 表示执行事务的主库 uuid(server_uuid),transaction_id 是一个从 1 开始的自增计数,表示在这个主库上执行的第 n 个事务。MySQL 会保证事务与 GTID 之间的 1 : 1 映射。

一、环境准备

操作系统:CentOS6.5 64位

数据库版本:MySQL5.6.23

拓扑如下:

三、安装主数据库(masterdb.example.com)

1、准备数据存放目录、创建用户

[root@masterdb ~]#mkdir /data/mysqldata -p #创建数据存放目录
[root@masterdb ~]#mkdir /data/mysqlLog/logs -p #创建日志存放目录
[root@masterdb ~]#groupadd -r mysql
[root@masterdb ~]#useradd -g mysql -r -s /sbin/nologin -M -d /data/mysqldata mysql
[root@masterdb ~]#chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysqldata
[root@masterdb ~]#chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysqlLog/logs

 2、安装并初始化mysql5.6.23

[root@masterdb ~]# tar xf mysql-advanced-5.6.23-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
[root@masterdb ~]# cd /usr/local/
[root@masterdb ~]# ln -sv mysql-advanced-5.6.23-linux-glibc2.5-x86_64 mysql
[root@masterdb ~]# chown -R root.mysql mysql
[root@masterdb ~]# cd mysql
[root@masterdb ~]# cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
[root@masterdb ~]# cp support-files/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf
[root@masterdb ~]# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
[root@masterdb ~]# chkconfig --add mysqld
[root@masterdb ~]# chkconfig mysqld on
[root@masterdb ~]# ./scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --datadir=/data/mysqldata/ 

3、输出mysql的man手册至man命令的查找路径:

编辑/etc/man.config,添加如下行即可:
MANPATH  /usr/local/mysql/man

4、输出mysql的头文件至系统头文件路径/usr/include:

这可以通过简单的创建链接实现:

[root@masterdb ~]#ln -sv /usr/local/mysql/include /usr/include/mysql

5、输出mysql的库文件给系统库查找路径:

[root@masterdb ~]#echo '/usr/local/mysql/lib' > /etc/ld.so.conf.d/mysql.conf

而后让系统重新载入系统库:

[root@masterdb ~]# ldconfig

6、修改PATH环境变量,让系统可以直接使用mysql的相关命令:

[root@masterdb ~]# vim /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin
[root@masterdb ~]#source /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh

从数据库安装同上,具体过程略过。

四、分别为主从数据库提供配置文件/etc/my.cnf

要在MySQL 5.6中使用复制功能,其服务配置段[mysqld]中于少应该定义如下选项:
binlog-format:二进制日志的格式,有row、statement和mixed几种类型;
需要注意的是:当设置隔离级别为READ-COMMITED必须设置二进制日志格式为ROW,现在MySQL官方认为STATEMENT这个已经不再适合继续使用;但mixed类型在默认的事务隔离级别下,可能会导致主从数据不一致;
log-slave-updates、gtid-mode、enforce-gtid-consistency、report-port和report-host:用于启动GTID及满足附属的其它需求;
master-info-repository和relay-log-info-repository:启用此两项,可用于实现在崩溃时保证二进制及从服务器安全的功能;
sync-master-info:启用之可确保无信息丢失;
slave-paralles-workers:设定从服务器的SQL线程数;0表示关闭多线程复制功能;
binlog-checksum、master-verify-checksum和slave-sql-verify-checksum:启用复制有关的所有校验功能;
binlog-rows-query-log-events:启用之可用于在二进制日志记录事件相关的信息,可降低故障排除的复杂度;
log-bin:启用二进制日志,这是保证复制功能的基本前提;
server-id:同一个复制拓扑中的所有服务器的id号必须惟一;

主数据库上:

[client]
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
default-character-set = utf8
[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
default-character-set = utf8

[mysqld]
server-id = 1
port = 3306
user = mysql
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /data/mysqldata
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
default-storage-engine = INNODB
character-set-server = utf8
connect_timeout = 60
interactive_timeout = 28800
wait_timeout = 28800
back_log = 500
event_scheduler = ON
skip_name_resolve = ON;

###########binlog##########
log-bin = /data/mysqlLog/logs/mysql-bin
binlog_format = row
max_binlog_size = 128M
binlog_cache_size = 2M
expire-logs-days = 5
log-slave-updates=true
gtid-mode=on
enforce-gtid-consistency=true
master-info-repository=TABLE
relay-log-info-repository=TABLE
sync-master-info=1
slave-parallel-workers=4
#rpl_semi_sync_master_enabled = 1

slow_query_log = 1
slow_query_log_file = /data/mysqlLog/logs/mysql.slow
long_query_time = 1

log_error = /data/mysqlLog/logs/error.log
max_connections = 3000
max_connect_errors = 32767
log_bin_trust_function_creators = 1
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED

从数据库上:

[client]
port = 3306
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
default-character-set = utf8

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
default-character-set = utf8

[mysqld]
server-id = 205
port = 3306
user = mysql
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /data/mysqldata
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
default-storage-engine = INNODB
character-set-server = utf8
connect_timeout = 60
wait_timeout = 18000
back_log = 500
event_scheduler = ON

###########binlog##########
log-bin = /data/mysqlLog/logs/mysql-bin
binlog_format = row
max_binlog_size = 128M
binlog_cache_size = 2M
expire-logs-days = 5
log-slave-updates=true
gtid-mode=on 
enforce-gtid-consistency=true
master-info-repository=TABLE
relay-log-info-repository=TABLE
sync-master-info=1
slave-parallel-workers=4
#rpl_semi_sync_slave_enabled = 1
skip-slave-start

slow_query_log = 1
slow_query_log_file = /data/mysqlLog/logs/mysql.slow
long_query_time = 2

log-error = /data/mysqlLog/logs/error.log
max_connections = 3000
max_connect_errors = 10000
log_bin_trust_function_creators = 1
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED

五、分别在主从数据库上启动mysqld服务

[root@masterdb ~]# service mysqld start
Starting MySQL......     [ OK ]
[root@masterdb ~]# 


[root@slavedb ~]# service mysqld start
Starting MySQL......     [ OK ]
[root@slavedb ~]# 

六、在主数据库上创建复制用户

复制代码 代码如下:
mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO repluser@172.16.88.205 IDENTIFIED BY 'replpassword';

说明:172.16.88.205是从节点服务器;如果想一次性授权更多的节点,可以自行根据需要修改;

七、启动从数据库上的复制线程

mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='masterdb.example.com', MASTER_USER='repluser', MASTER_PASSWORD='replpassword', MASTER_AUTO_POSITION=1;
mysql>start slave;

八、在从数据库上查看复制状态

mysql> show slave status\G;
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
   Master_Host: masterdb.56xyl.com
   Master_User: repluser
   Master_Port: 3306
  Connect_Retry: 60
  Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
  Read_Master_Log_Pos: 191
  Relay_Log_File: slavedb-relay-bin.000003
  Relay_Log_Pos: 401
 Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000002
  Slave_IO_Running: Yes #IO线程已正常运行
  Slave_SQL_Running: Yes #SQL线程已正常运行
  Replicate_Do_DB: 
  Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
  Replicate_Do_Table: 
 Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
 Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
 Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
   Last_Errno: 0
   Last_Error: 
   Skip_Counter: 0
  Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 191
  Relay_Log_Space: 1899
  Until_Condition: None
  Until_Log_File: 
  Until_Log_Pos: 0
  Master_SSL_Allowed: No
  Master_SSL_CA_File: 
  Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
  Master_SSL_Cert: 
  Master_SSL_Cipher: 
  Master_SSL_Key: 
 Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
  Last_IO_Errno: 0
  Last_IO_Error: 
  Last_SQL_Errno: 0
  Last_SQL_Error: 
 Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
  Master_Server_Id: 1
   Master_UUID: 971d7245-c3f8-11e5-8b6b-000c2999e5a5
  Master_Info_File: mysql.slave_master_info
   SQL_Delay: 0
  SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL
 Slave_SQL_Running_State: Slave has read all relay log; waiting for the slave I/O thread to update it
  Master_Retry_Count: 86400
   Master_Bind: 
 Last_IO_Error_Timestamp: 
 Last_SQL_Error_Timestamp: 
  Master_SSL_Crl: 
  Master_SSL_Crlpath: 
  Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 971d7245-c3f8-11e5-8b6b-000c2999e5a5:1-6
  Executed_Gtid_Set: 89e78301-c3f4-11e5-8b51-00505624d26a:1-3,
971d7245-c3f8-11e5-8b6b-000c2999e5a5:1-6
  Auto_Position: 1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

ERROR: 
No query specified

mysql> 


九、测试

在主库上创建数据库:

mysql> create database log_statics;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.11 sec)
 
mysql> use log_statics;
Database changed
到从数据库上查看log_statics是否已经复制过去
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database  |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| log_statics |
| mysql  |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql>

可以看到log_statics数据库已经存在于从数据库上。

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助。

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